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The Original Europeans, Rh- Factor & The Neolithic Settlements of Ireland
Written By: MikeMcNamara8 ~ Blogger
The original Europeans who carried the rhesus negative blood factor 35 000 years ago are probably the original Europeans who painted the comic strips and other art in the caves of southern France and northern Spain which includes the Chauvet-Pont-d' Arc cave and the Lascaux cave paintings found in the Pyrennes.
The rhesus negative blood factor is a recessive phenotype while the O rhesus positive factor is a dominant phenotype. Black wavy hair, brown eyes, copper to brown tanned oily skin are dominant phenotypes which the men who drew these cave paintings most likely possessed. The women most likely possessed dominant features as well but probably had hazel eyes and slightly lighter skin which may have been less oily. These women were probably the carriers of the O positive blood factor.
35 000 years ago the men of southern France and the Basque region hunted the wild bison, wooly rhinocerus, horse, and mammoth where they lived in tepees with the women and not in the painted caves according to popular belief. The women would have gathered wild fruits, seeds, and berries where they brought them back to thier campsite. They probably spent most of thier time in those dark tepees and only occasionaly did they most likely wander out of thier tepees to collect the fruit of the plains. The reason being for this is that after menstruation and child birth, they needed protection from the cold and other weather elements to raise and feed thier children. This is probably where the women, over thousands of years, obtained the recessive genotypes like lighter skin and hazel eyes, although not necessarily the dominate phenotype of the O+ blood factor which they most likely picked up 5-6000 years earlier when they ventured out of Siberia on thier way to northern and southern Europe. It is positively sure that a few of the O rhesus positive women joined the O rhesus negative tribe, but a lot of the women travelling to southern Europe just below the Swiss alps likely still had the O rhesus negative factor while those travelling north of the glaciated Swiss alps likely had the O rhesus positive factor. This may explain why a lot of Spanish and Italians presently have dark hair as opposed to the Germans and French who have lighter complexions and blond or blonde hair.
Modern humans (H.s.sapiens) were present in western Europe by 35 000 B.C. During the final glaciation they occupied the area south of the major ice sheets, including both Spain and southern Britain. This Late Palaeolithic population is thought to have been relatively open with regard to mating networks, and mutations could have circulated among the founder populations of Spain and the British Isles. Indeed, during the maximum glaciation at around 18 000 BC, south-west Europe may have served as a refuge area for Palaeolithic populations where the shift in the thermal gradient enhanced offshore fishing on the Cantabrian coast. It is about this time that probably some of the big game such as bison, wooly rhinocerus, and mammoth would have been hunted to extinction while the lions who hunted these prey became extinct also. The hunters then probably turned to horses and the giant irish deer for food.
12,000 years ago the giant irish deer which these hunters hunted in southern France were becoming scarce and these hunters knew this. These giant irish riendeer likely stayed close to the ice-capped mountains of the Pyrennes and when the weather got warmer, they headed toward the glaciated mountain caps of the Swiss alps. The warm period came to an end about 11 000 years ago and a mini ice age followed lasting some centuries, during which the still present glaciers recovered some of thier lost ground. The famous Irish archaeologist Michael O'Kelly wrote:
"In the Post-glacial Stage which commenced about 10,300 years ago the climate again began to improve and thus began the present warm stage' in whic we now live".
It is likely that the upper palaeolithic or mesolithic hunter-gatherers of the Pyrenees and Andorra Spain ventured to the bay of Bisacy 12 000 years ago and started building thier ocean ships. What these were made of is uncertain, however it's quite possible that they used large logs made from oaks or pine that were doubled on top of one another where they were tied down with soft springy saplings that were split lengthwise and bent over the logs horizontaly to the top and the underside. These springy saplings with pliability were then tied at the ends together with leather similar to how a gripper bar raft is made. A coracle was placed on top of the gripper bar raft which was tied down to the corners of the raft with leather rope. The coracle may have had small holes in it to allow for a paddle rudder mounted on an A-frame to steer the raft. The cut leather surrounding the holes would have been tied around the wooden branches of the A-frame with finer strips of leather. The sails would have likely been made from the skins of the giant irish reindeer with the skins being scraped clean and sewn together. It's also possible the skins would have been made from smaller reindeer hides, but this seems unlikely since the hunters had sought and favoured the larger irish reindeer, and the coracle placed on top of the raft would have been too small.
Whatever the ocean ships were made of, the hunter-gatherers sought reindeer and knew they lied north of the Bay of Biscay and set out to sail from there. They headed north using star navigation about 11 000 years ago and found a large herd of migrating reindeer in Arctic Norway.The first people to settle on the west coasts of the Atlantic Islands 11000 to 10 000 years ago were likely the support crews for the reindeer hunters of Finnmark in Arctic Norway, who needed safe harbours, resting places, supply and repair services for thier ocean transport ships. The first and most important of these bases established was likely on Orkney, which has the longest record of continuous settlement of the British Isles and has rich archaeological sites to prove it. The traditional view of the origin of the Picts is that they started out settling the other islands from Orkney as is written by Bede in "The Eclesiastical History of the English People" (731 A.D). It was also roughly the half-way point between the Basque country and Finnmark. The people sent there over the centuries came from either the Bay of Biscay or from the western coasts of Ireland which they may have used as a repair and resting staion. From the Bay of Biscay, they brought any needed tools, livestock and nets. It is quite possible that they may have brought pigs and goats because they could survive with little care in the coastal forests and they seem to do well together since pigs eat roots and tubers while goats can eat small twigs, branches and lichens. The west coasts of Ireland and Scotland which presently have moors would have looked like forests since the warm gulf stream would not have had a full effect at this stage. The weather appears to have been considerably better than it is today as O'Kelly wrote:
"In circa 9,600 BP, the Boreal Phase, birch was still present but hazel began to expand greatly. The lowlands and lower mountain slopes became covered in woodland and the heath lands seem to have disappeared. Pine also became prominent and while hazel continued to increase at the expense of birch, the oak and the elm made their appearance. The climate was relatively dry and not unlike that of the present day, although perhaps less stormy because the forest was able to spread right down to the western coastline. It is known that man was in Ireland at this time..."
THE Rh-NEGATIVE POPULATION
The first mesolithic people from the Basque peninsula were without doubt the most experienced sailors of the Atlantic. These people who populated the northwest coast of Europe have a very special blood peculiarty which thier descendants are still living today. Dr.Luigi Cavalli-Sforza published a map of the populations with the highest percentage of thier members with Rh-negative blood. He wrote:
"Rh-negative genes are frequent in Europe, infrequent in Africa and West Asia, and virtually absent in East Asia and among the aboriginal populations of America and Australia. One can estimate degrees of relatedness by subtracting the percentage of Rh-negative individuals among, say, the English (16%) from that of the Basques (25%) to find a difference of nine percentage points.
The highest percentage of people with rh- blood is found in the Atlas mountains of Morocco(40%). The next highest are the Basques, reported in different publications as having 25 and 32%, depending on location. The people of northwest Ireland, the Highland Scots and the western islanders of Norway all have between 16 and 25%, while the Lapps of Norway and Finland have between 5 and 7%
It is said that the first people in Ireland came from Scotland in wooden boats 10 000 years ago as mesolthic hunter-gatherers. If the first people came to Ireland from Scotland 10 000 years ago, surely Scotland, the outer Hebrides, and Orkney were populated much earlier. Not only that, the people on the west coasts of Ireland where supply and repair stations for the ocean boats of the hunters in Arctic Norway would have been to Ireland a few centuries or a thousand years earlier. It's possible that even if there were no deer in certain places among the glaciated Atlantic coasts, the hunter-gatherers would have eaten raw seal. The area was widely glaciated and a mini iceage would have made sure they didn't stay there for very long atleast. It is said that the first people came to county Antrim in Northern Ireland and when the mini iceage lasting a few centuries set in, they moved south along the east coast of Ireland where mesolithic remains but no settlements were found. It may also have been possible that if the first people did settle on the west coasts of Ireland, they would have travelled back to the outer Hebrides of Scotland or present day Britain when the mini iceage did set in. At any rate, these people hung around in Ireland and Scotland for 3000 years hunting wild boar and goats which they brought with them from the Bay of Biscay while the women were gathering plants and berries as mesolithic hunter-gatherers when the first celtic speaking neolithic settlers arrived.
THE NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENTS OF IRELAND
The Celtic speaking neolithic settlers of Ireland were Ireland's first farmers who made grave cairns, passage tombs and megaliths from large standing stones which they dug up and may have found more flint from removing them. Given the higher productivity of an agricultural subsistence economy and the effect of sedentism itself on birth spacing, the new farming communities could quickly have outgrown the indigenous population before much intermarriage took place. At the end of the period, ca. 2500 BC, the basis of the Irish genepool was determined, with an estimated 100 000-200 000 people living in Ireland. These people had the slight advantage in the fact that they brought cows with them so thier flesh could be preserved by smoking which meant it had a longer shelf life; smoking pig flesh does not preserve or stay as long as it is full of fat. They may have also come in huge numbers and brought better strands of healthier wheat or barley and made milk from the cows to feed thier young. By the end of the mesolithic there were several thousand people in Ireland and probably twice that amount before the neolithic people arrived in Scotland.